A Chinese linguist by training, James Mulvenon is a leading international expert on Chinese cyber, technology transfer, espionage, and military issues. He received his B.A. in China Studies from the University of Michigan and received his Ph.D. in political science from the University of California, Los Angeles. His dissertation, published by ME Sharpe in 2001 under the title Soldiers of Fortune, details the rise and fall of the Chinese military’s international business empire. In 2013, he co-authored Chinese Industrial Espionage, which is the first full account of the complete range of China’s efforts to illicitly acquire foreign technology. He contributed multiple chapters to China’s Quest for Foreign Technology: Beyond Espionage, which was published in September 2020. Most recently, he contributed a chapter entitled “Nontraditional Security Competition: The Espionage Realm” in Evan Medeiros, ed., Cold Rivals: The New Era of US-China Strategic Competition, published by Georgetown University Press in 2023.